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11 Mei, 2009

Hermeneutika al-Qur’an Mulla Sadra

Ṣadr ad-Dīn Muḥammad Shīrāzī, juga disebut dng Mulla Sadrā (c. 1571–1636) adalah seorang ulama, teolog dan filsuf muslim asal Persia. Ia menjadi tokoh garda depan reanisance kultural di Iran pada abad ke 17. Mulla sadara disebut2 sbg tokoh utama mazhab Illuminationist (Ishraqi) dan pada umumnya dipandang oleh orang2 Iran sbg filsuf terbesar yg telah dihasilkan negri itu. Mazhab pemikiran filsafatnya disebut dng Transcendent Theosophy atau al-hikmah al-muta’liyah.

Mulla Sadra tentang Hermeneutika al-Qur’an
Umumnya para ulama berpendapat bahwa tafsir al-Qur’an muncul sebagai praktik alamiyah Nabi Muhammad SAW sendiri. Tujuan hermeneutika (yakni, memahami) al-Qur’an dan tafsirnya tidak-lah semata2 bersifat teoritis. Hermeneutika juga memiliki tujuan praktis, yg menjadikan teks tsb dapat diterapkan sebagai keyakinan dan jalan hidup kaum muslimin. Selama kurun waktu tertentu, di dunia Muslim, telah muncul beragam jenis tafsir. Karya2 tafsir tersebut masuk dalam kategori2 besar seperti: tekstual atau literal, fiqhi, teologis, filosofis, spiritual dll.

Sebetulnya sangat menarik utk mencermati secara sekilas persoalan hermeneutika al-Qur’an Mulla sadra. Mulla Sadra menulis tafsir atas bbrp surat dan ayat. Bahkan ia juga menulis sejumlah karya yg membahas ilmu2 tafsir. Dalam kitabnya Mafatih al-ghayb (Kunci Menuju Dunia Yg Tak Kasat-Mata) ia mendikusikan berbagai metode dan prinsip hermeneutika al-Qur’an.

Menurut Sadra, bahasa al-Qur’an memiliki sifat mutasyabih. Mutastabih biasanya diartikan dng suatu ungkapan yg belum pasti, indetermination, ambigu dan suatu kata yg struktur dasarnya memiliki sejumlah makna yg beraneka ragam.

Diantara tugas hermeneutika adalah menyingkap suatu makna2 yg tersembunyi dng makna2 yg jelas dan terang kemudian diungkapkan dng kata2 yg lugas. Menurut Sadra tugas ini belum mampu dilakukan oleh para mufasir. Dalam kata2nya yg lugas ia mengatakan: “Nothing of that which the exoteric commentators of The Qur’an, such as al-Zamakhshari and those who emulate him, have written is the true knowledge of The Qur’an or gnosis of the Divine Revelation in the true sense. All of that relates to philology, grammar and dialectic, and touches only the shell of the exterior revetment. The true knowledge of The Qur’an is something else”. (lihat Se Asl, ed. S.H.Nasr, Tehran, 1961, hal.84)

Lalu bagaimana cara mengetahui 'makna al-Qur'an yg sebenarnya (the true knowledge of The Qur’an)' menurut Sadra? Dan bagaimana ia sampai pada pengetahuan tsb? Menarik sekali sebetulnya utk mempelajari teorinya ttg bahasa al-Quran. Konsepnya ttg al-Qur’an sbg ujaran Tuhan beserta makna yg diimplikasinya, prinsip dan syarat2 hermeneutika al-Qur’an, serta metodologinya dalam karya tafsir al-Quran-nya yg berjudul Tafsir al-Kabir.

Sebetulnya sudah ada buku yg meneliti ttg hal ini, yakni buku yg berjudul "Mulla Sadra Shirazi on The Hermeneutic of The Qur’an" karya Prof. Latimah S.Peerwani. Sayangnya, masih sulit utk menjumpainya di negri tercinta ini.

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